It earned its name because of its central location between Fort Worth and El Paso, but because there were already other towns in Texas by the name of Midway, the city changed its name to Midland in January when it was granted its first Post Office.
Midland became the county seat of Midland County in March , when that county was first organized and separated from Tom Green County. By , it had become one of the most important cattle shipping centers in the state. The city was incorporated in , and by the city established its first fire department, along with a new water system. Soon, Midland was transformed into the administrative center of the West Texas oil fields. During the Second World War , Midland was the largest bombardier training base in the country.
A second boom period began after the war, with the discovery and development of the Spraberry Trend , still ranked as the third-largest oil field in the United States by total reserves. Today, the Permian Basin produces one fifth of the nation's total petroleum and natural gas output.
Midland's economy still relies heavily on petroleum; however, the city has also diversified to become a regional telecommunications and distribution center. By August , a busy period of crude oil production had caused a significant workforce deficit. According to the Midland Chamber of Commerce, at that time there were almost 2, more jobs available in the Permian Basin than there were workers to fill them. Midland County[ edit ] In , the U.
Supreme Court heard the case of Avery v. Midland mayor Hank Avery had sued Midland County, challenging the electoral-districting scheme in effect for elections to the County Commissioner's Court. A judge, elected on an at-large basis, provided a fifth vote, but the result was that the three rural commissioners, representing only three percent of the county's population, held a majority of the votes.
The majority of the U. Supreme Court held that the districting inequality violated the Fourteenth Amendment 's Equal Protection clause. The dissenting minority held that this example of the Warren Court's policy of incorporation at the local-government level exceeded the Court's constitutional authority.
According to the United States Census Bureau , the city has a total area of The city is occasionally subject to cold waves during the winter, but it rarely sees extended periods of below-freezing cold.
Midland receives approximately