As early as the late 19th century, Asian immigrants were subject to racial prejudice in the United States. Laws were passed that openly discriminated against Asians, and sometimes Japanese in particular. Many of these laws stated that Asians could not become citizens of the United States and could not hold basic rights, such as owning land. These laws were greatly detrimental to the newly arrived immigrants, since many of them were farmers and had little choice but to become migrant workers.
Some cite the formation of the Asiatic Exclusion League as the start of the anti-Japanese movement in California. On 11 October , the San Francisco, California Board of Education had passed a regulation whereby children of Japanese descent would be required to attend racially segregated separate schools.
The invasion of China in and the conquest of Manchuria was roundly criticized in the US. In addition, efforts by citizens outraged at Japanese atrocities, such as the Nanking Massacre , led to calls for American economic intervention to encourage Japan to leave China; these calls played a role in shaping American foreign policy.
As more and more unfavorable reports of Japanese actions came to the attention of the American government, embargoes on oil and other supplies were placed on Japan, out of concern for the Chinese populace and for American interests in the Pacific. Furthermore, the European American population became very pro-China and anti-Japan, an example being a grass-roots campaign for women to stop buying silk stockings, because the material was procured from Japan through its colonies.
When the Second Sino-Japanese War broke out in , Western public opinion was decidedly pro-China, with eyewitness reports by Western journalists on atrocities committed against Chinese civilians further strengthening anti-Japanese sentiments. African American sentiments could be quite different than the mainstream, with organizations like the Pacific Movement of the Eastern World PMEW which promised equality and land distribution under Japanese rule.
The PMEW had thousands of members hopefully preparing for liberation from white supremacy with the arrival of the Japanese Imperial Army. The man was later detained nonetheless. This Dorothea Lange photograph was taken in March , just prior to the Japanese American internment. The most profound cause of anti-Japanese sentiment outside of Asia had its beginning in the attack on Pearl Harbor.
The Americans were unified by the attack to fight against the Empire of Japan and its allies, the German Reich and the Kingdom of Italy.
The surprise attack at Pearl Harbor prior to a declaration of war was presented to the American populace as an act of treachery and cowardice. Following the attack many non-governmental " Jap hunting licenses" were circulated around the country.
Life magazine published an article on how to tell a Japanese from a Chinese person by the shape of the nose and the stature of the body. Fanning the flames of outrage were the treatment of American and other prisoners of war POWs.
Weingartner attributes the very low number of Japanese in U. POW compounds to two key factors: Japanologist , believes that front line troops intensely hated Japanese military personnel and were "not easily persuaded" to take or protect prisoners, as they believed that Allied personnel who surrendered, got "no mercy" from the Japanese. An estimated , to , Japanese migrants and Japanese Americans from the West Coast were interned [ citation needed ] regardless of their attitude to the US or Japan.
They were held for the duration of the war in the inner US. The large Japanese population of Hawaii was not massively relocated in spite of their proximity to vital military areas. Debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Weingartner argues that there is a common cause between the mutilation of Japanese war dead and the decision to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
When you have to deal with a beast you have to treat him like a beast. It is most regrettable but nevertheless true". Nowhere was this more visible than in the automobile industry, where the lethargic Big Three automobile manufacturers General Motors , Ford , and Chrysler watched as their former customers bought Japanese imports from Honda , Subaru , Mazda , and Nissan , a consequence of the and energy crisis. The anti-Japanese sentiment manifested itself in occasional public destruction of Japanese cars, and in the murder of Vincent Chin , a Chinese American beaten to death when he was mistaken to be Japanese.
Other highly symbolic deals — including the sale of famous American commercial and cultural symbols such as Columbia Records , Columbia Pictures , and the Rockefeller Center building to Japanese firms — further fanned anti-Japanese sentiment.
Popular culture of the period reflected American's growing distrust of Japan. The film Blade Runner showed a futuristic Los Angeles clearly under Japanese domination with a Japanese majority population and culture , perhaps a reference to the alternate world presented in The Man in the High Castle written by Philip K.
Criticism was also lobbied in many novels of the day. Author Michael Crichton wrote Rising Sun , a murder mystery later made into a feature film involving Japanese businessmen in the U.
Likewise, in Tom Clancy 's book, Debt of Honor , Clancy implies that Japan's prosperity is due primarily to unequal trading terms, and portrays Japan's business leaders acting in a power hungry cabal.
As argued by Marie Thorsten, however, Japanophobia mixed with Japanophilia during Japan's peak moments of economic dominance during the s. The fear of Japan became a rallying point for techno-nationalism, the imperative to be first in the world in mathematics, science and other quantifiable measures of national strength necessary to boost technological and economic supremacy. Notorious "Japan-bashing" took place alongside the image of Japan as superhuman, mimicking in some ways the image of the Soviet Union after it launched the first Sputnik satellite in American bureaucrats purposely pushed this analogy.
In , Ernest Boyer, a former U. Commissioner of Education, publicly declared that, "What we need is another Sputnik" to re-boot American education, and that "maybe what we should do is get the Japanese to put a Toyota into orbit. Japan's waning economic fortunes in the s, known today as the Lost Decade , coupled with an upsurge in the U. Anti-Japanese sentiment in China Poster outside of a restaurant in Guangzhou , China Anti-Japanese sentiment is felt very strongly in China and distrust, hostility and negative feelings towards Japan, Japanese people and culture is widespread in China.
Anti-Japanese sentiment is a phenomenon that mostly dates back to modern times post Like many Western powers during the era of imperialism, Japan negotiated treaties that often resulted in the annexation of land from China towards the end of the Qing Dynasty. Dissatisfaction with Japanese settlements and the Twenty-One Demands by the Japanese government led to a serious boycott of Japanese products in China.
Today, bitterness in China persists  over the atrocities of the Second Sino-Japanese War and Japan's post-war actions, particularly the perceived lack of a straightforward acknowledgment of such atrocities, Japanese government employment of known past war criminals, and Japanese historic revisionism in textbooks. From elementary school, children are taught about Japanese war crimes in detail, for example, thousands of children are brought to the Museum of the War of Chinese People's Resistance Against Japanese Aggression in Beijing by their elementary schools to view photos of war atrocities, such as exhibits of records of Japanese military forcing Chinese workers into wartime labour,  the Nanking Massacre ,  and the issues of comfort women.
After viewing the museum, the children's hatred of the Japanese people was reported to increase significantly. Despite the time that has passed since the end of the Second World War, discussions about the Japanese conduct can still evoke powerful emotions today, in part because most Japanese are aware of what happened but their society has never engaged in the type of introspection common in Germany after the Holocaust.
More than anti-Japanese films were made in China in alone. Anti-Japanese sentiment in Korea The issue of anti-Japanese sentiment in Korea is complex and multi-faceted. Anti-Japanese attitudes in the Korean Peninsula can be traced as far back as the Japanese pirate raids and Japanese invasions of Korea — , but are largely a product of the Japanese occupation of Korea from —, and subsequent revisionism in history textbooks used in Japan's educational system after World War II.
Today, issues of Japanese history textbook controversies , Japanese policy regarding World War II, and geographic disputes between the two countries perpetuate this sentiment, and these issues often incur huge disputes between Japanese and South Korean Internet users.
The KMT majority-takeover in followed by a boating accident resulting in Taiwanese deaths has created recent tensions, however. Anti-Japanese sentiment traces back to World War II and the aftermath of the war, where an estimated one million Filipinos, of a wartime population of 17 million, were killed during the war, and many more injured.
Nearly every Filipino family was hurt by the war on some level. Most notably in the city of Mapanique.