Evolution of the word coffee. Thus the spelling cafe has become very common in English-language usage throughout the world, especially for the less formal, i.
The Arabic term qahwa originally referred to a type of wine, but after the wine ban by Islam , the name was transferred to coffee because of the similar rousing effect it induced.
History[ edit ] Coffeehouses in Mecca became a concern of imams who viewed them as places for political gatherings and drinking. They were banned for Muslims between and Until the year , in the High, God-Guarded city of Constantinople , as well as in Ottoman lands generally, coffee and coffee-houses did not exist. About that year, a fellow called Hakam from Aleppo and a wag called Shams from Damascus came to the city; they each opened a large shop in the district called Tahtakale , and began to purvey coffee.
The 17th century French traveler and writer Jean Chardin gave a lively description of the Persian coffeehouse scene: People engage in conversation, for it is there that news is communicated and where those interested in politics criticize the government in all freedom and without being fearful, since the government does not heed what the people say.
In addition, mollas, dervishes, and poets take turns telling stories in verse or in prose. The narrations by the mollas and the dervishes are moral lessons, like our sermons, but it is not considered scandalous not to pay attention to them.
No one is forced to give up his game or his conversation because of it. A molla will stand up in the middle, or at one end of the qahveh-khaneh, and begin to preach in a loud voice, or a dervish enters all of a sudden, and chastises the assembled on the vanity of the world and its material goods. It often happens that two or three people talk at the same time, one on one side, the other on the opposite, and sometimes one will be a preacher and the other a storyteller.
The first coffeehouses appeared in Venice in ,  due to the traffic between La Serenissima and the Ottomans; the very first one is recorded in A building on the same site now houses a cafe-bar called The Grand Cafe. By , there were more than 3, coffeehouses in England.
In , Kara Hamie, a former Ottoman Janissary from Constantinople, opened the first coffee shop in Bucharest then the capital of the Principality of Wallachia , in the center of the city, where today sits the main building of the National Bank of Romania. There is a statue of Kulczycki on a street also named after him. However the culture of drinking coffee was itself widespread in the country in the second half of the 18th century. The first registered coffeehouse in Vienna was founded by an Armenian merchant named Johannes Theodat also known as Johannes Diodato in The rich intellectual atmosphere of early London coffeehouses were available to anyone who could pay the sometimes one penny entry fee, giving them the name of 'Penny Universities'.
Lloyd's of London had its origins in a coffeehouse run by Edward Lloyd, where underwriters of ship insurance met to do business. By , there were coffeehouses in London; each attracted a particular clientele divided by occupation or attitude, such as Tories and Whigs , wits and stockjobbers , merchants and lawyers, booksellers and authors, men of fashion or the "cits" of the old city center.
The banning of women from coffeehouses was not universal, but does appear to have been common in Europe. In Germany, women frequented them, but in England and France they were banned.
Coffeepots are ranged at an open fire, with a hanging cauldron of boiling water. The only woman present presides, separated in a canopied booth, from which she serves coffee in tall cups. Kulczycki began the first coffeehouse in Vienna with the hoard.
However, it is now widely accepted that the first coffeehouse was actually opened by an Armenian merchant named Johannes Diodato Asdvadzadur. Jonathan's Coffee-House in saw the listing of stock and commodity prices that evolved into the London Stock Exchange.
Lloyd's Coffee House provided the venue for merchants and shippers to discuss insurance deals, leading to the establishment of Lloyd's of London insurance market, the Lloyd's Register classification society , and other related businesses.
Auctions in salesrooms attached to coffeehouses provided the start for the great auction houses of Sotheby's and Christie's. During the 18th century, the oldest extant coffeehouses in Italy were established: In Victorian England, the temperance movement set up coffeehouses for the working classes , as a place of relaxation free of alcohol, an alternative to the public house pub.
Pue not only printed and published his own newspaper, but also owned his own printing press, which he made available for others to print their newspapers, pamphlets, catalogues, and books. And books would be made available to patrons for perusal, thus contributing to a culture of reading and increased literacy.
Most coffeehouses of the 18th century would eventually be equipped with their own printing presses or incorporated a book shop. Later, most would merge. As coffeehouses grew into public reading centers, circulating libraries in Dublin expanded, resembling public libraries as they lent books.
Public library fees were then expensive. Book-borrowing from circulating libraries was more affordable. Circulating library keepers could keep fees low because they were also printers, publishers, and newspaper proprietors. One of the first circulating libraries was established by James Hoey in Competition grew, as did the number of patrons wanting several books at a time.
Women were not allowed in coffeehouses, so circulating libraries would target them by carrying books tailored to female readers. Another lure of circulating libraries was that most were flexible with their loan terms and rates which increased circulation of books. It was cheaper to have a yearly subscription to borrow than to purchase books. Having circulating libraries increased people's ability to read as access to books became affordable.